Università degli Studi di Pavia

Facoltà di Ingegneria

Artificial Intelligence

A.A. 2021-2022

First Semester

Fri: 11:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m., Room A2

Fri: 2:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m., Room A1

Lectures & Suggested Readings:

  • Reports of errors in the resources below are always welcome
    1. 2021.10.01 (theory)

      Introduction [pdf]

      Alan Turing (Wikipedia)
      Computer chess (Wikipedia)

      Shannon, C., "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess", Philosophical Magazine, 41 (314), 1950 [pdf]

      BBC2 Horizon, "Out of Control", 2012 [video, on Dailymotion]

      D. Silver, et al., "Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search", Nature, 529, 2016 [link]

      "AlphaGo - The Movie | Full Documentary", YouTube, 2020 [video]

    2. 2021.10.01 (theory)

      Symbolic reasoning [pdf]
      Language, schemas and reasoning

      Syllogism (ancient logic) (Wikipedia)

    3. 2021.10.08 (theory)

      Propositional logic [pdf]
      Boolean algebras, formal propositional language and its semantics, satisfiability, entailment

      Rules of inference, justified by entailment (Wikipedia)

    4. 2021.10.15 (theory)

      Entailment and algorithms [pdf]
      Turing machine, decision problems, computational complexity, entailment as a satisfiability problem (i.e. refutation)

    5. 2021.10.22 (theory)

      Automated Symbolic Calculus [pdf]
      Semantic tableaux, propositional resolution, soundess and completeness, computational complexity

      Tree Proof Generator [link]: online solver through semantic tableaux

    6. 2021.10.29 (theory)

      First-order logic [pdf]
      First-order semantic structures, formal language, variables and quantifiers, satisfaction, entailment

    7. 2021.11.05 (theory)

      Semi-decidability of First-Order logic [pdf]
      Prenex normal form, skolemization, Herbrand's theorem

      Prenex normal form (Wikipedia)

      First-Order resolution [pdf]
      Clausal form, unification, resolution method for first-order logic

    8. 2021.11.12 (theory)

      SLD resolution [pdf]
      Horn clauses, SLD resolution, logic programming

      Depth-first search (Wikipedia)
      Breadth-first search (Wikipedia)

      Minimal Models [pdf]
      Horn clauses, Herbrand model, implicit database

    9. 2021.11.19 (theory)

      Plausible reasoning [pdf]
      Negation as failure, closed world assumption, deductive, inductive and abductive reasoning

      Probabilitistic reasoning: representation and inference [pdf]
      Foundations of probability, probability space, random variables, Bayes' theorem, probabilistic inference

      Countable set (Wikipedia)
      Sigma algebra (Wikipedia - see simple set-based examples)
      Probability space (Wikipedia)
      Random variable (Wikipedia)

      "The Banach-Tarski Paradox" (semi-serious but also very informative), YouTube, 2015 [video]

    10. 2021.11.26 (theory)

      Graphical models [pdf]
      Graphical models and factorization, d-separation, inference, computational methods

      Examples with "Bayes" (free software) available on AISpace
      [download] (see Belief and Decision Networks)


    1. Marco Piastra

    2. Contact: marco.piastra@unipv.it


    1. Course info


    1. See Faculty website

    Further resources:

    (There are no required textbooks for this course. The following books are recommended as optional readings)

    1. Mordechai Ben-Ari, Mathematical Logic for Computer Science (3rd Edition). Springer, 2012

    2. Kevin P. Murphy, Machine Learning: A Probabilistic Perspective, MIT Press, 2012.


    1. Artificial Intelligence Reading Group

    1. Artificial Intelligence, A.A. 2020-2021 and before